Vaccination : a history. From the Pasteur’s vaccines to the modern vaccines

Par Hervé BAZIN*

*Dr vétérinaire, Dr ès Sciences, Pr émérite de la faculté de Médecine de l’Université de Louvain, Membre de l’Académie vétérinaire de France, email

Communication présentée le 20 avril 2013

This essay tries to describe the beginning of the development of the attenuated vaccine by Pasteur and his colleagues and of some of those which have been produced later following this method: chemical vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines, serotherapy, sero-vaccination, auto-vaccines, anatoxins/ toxoids, conjugated vaccines as examples of the first generation of pastorian vaccines. The births of the molecular biology and the genetic engineering have produced an explosion of new types of vaccines. As examples of the second generation of pastorian vaccines, two examples of the first modern vaccine, made by genetically modified organisms as the Hepatitis B-vaccine, using an expression system (cell lines, yeast, etc.) and the vaccine-rabies, using a vector system, are given. A third example, a marker vaccine also called DIVA for « Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals » is given.